Andreas Eppink

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Andreas Eppink is a Dutch entrepreneur, organizational consultant and independent scientific researcher, living in Spain since 1995. He was born on 9 August 1946 in Gendringen, The Netherlands. He established himself as an independent entrepreneur in Amsterdam (1972) and subsequently in Hilversum (1984-1999).Curriculum Vitae

Education[edit | hide all | hide | edit source]

Eppink studied at the gymnasium of the Canisius College in Nijmegen, and at the Dutch universities of Amsterdam and Leyden, and in Munster (Germany) and Cairo (Egypt, American University) and did internships in Málaga, Morocco and Athens. He graduated in Andragology (1968), Work and Organization Psychology and Cultural Anthropology (1972), and once more in Clinical Psychology (1978) after his PhD dissertation Amsterdam University, 1977).[1]
As to his different definitions of culture, the next definition is one of the most cited in Malaysia and Indonesia: Culture covers the understanding of the whole of a society's social values, standards and overall knowledge of social structures, religious expressions and so on, including all the intellectual and artistic expressions that characterize a society.

(Big) Data and Test Development[edit | hide | edit source]

In 1972 Mr. Eppink et al. conducted a secondary analysis of the answers to the latest Dutch census[2] of 43,455 foreign workers from the Mediterranean area. On basis of parameters, the conclusion was that the general expectation that foreign employees return to their country after five years' residence was unfounded, despite the fact that the vast majority of these people answered affirmative to these questions.[3]

Similar kind of problems when interpretating research data acquired through interviews and questionnaires may also arise in test research, psychological and medical diagnosis, as well as in the courtroom, due to cultural differences in communication. See Cross-cultural applicability of psychological tests.[4]

Career[edit | hide | edit source]

As a working university student, he was an interviewer at NIPO (Dutch Institute for Public Opinion), NISSO (Dutch Institute for Social and Sexual Research), and in some product-testing agencies.
He established himself as independent psychologist and trainer in professional interview techniques in Amsterdam (1972-1978) and subsequently as consultant in Hilversum for recruitment, assessment, outplacement and teambuilding (1985-1999).
Eppink was founder and head of the Averroés Foundation for Cross-Cultural Research (Amsterdam, 1978-1985).

Activities in the Field of Migration and Intercultural Communication[edit | hide | edit source]

Referring to the conducted secondary analysis in 1972, Mr. Eppink predicted immigration instead of temporary residence, with family reunification and psycho-social problems in the future, and advocated research and adapted policy.[5] To that end he founded of the Averroés Stichting (Foundation for Cross-Cultural Research).[6] He managed the foundation's action researches sponsored by the Kids' Stamps Foundation.
In an interview 1977, he expressed his concerns regarding the difficult integration process of non-Western residents in European countries.[7] In the same year, after the Dutch government officially accepted that immigration was a fact, the Foundation became an institute and endowed with both state funds and the Town of Amsterdam. The Foundation existed 30 years, until 2010.[8]

Dr. A. Eppink headed the Dutch delegation at the United Nations. Eight members, including Dr. A. Eppink, Mr. H.B. Entzinger[9], Deputy Inspector for Education of Migrant Children.[10] in the capacity of expert in the field of migration and associated psycho-social problems[11] and contributed to concerted action in steering committees in Strasbourg (Council of Europe) and Brussels (CEE).

His book Cultuurverschillen en Communicatie (Cultural Differences and Communication)[12] based on participant observation: How do professionals and their clients communicate with each other, both successfully and unsuccessfully. The observations were used in videotaped courses as models for role-playing. The book became a standard work in the Netherlands and Belgium. Eppink was called "the pioneer in the field of transcultural communication in the Netherlands."[13]

Forensic expert 1977-1997[14][edit | hide | edit source]

In his capacity of a permanent forensic court expert, Eppink wrote several articles on diagnostic problems due to communication and cultural differences.[15]. (Some articles have been reprinted on[16].)
Several problems concerning individual cases were published in the national press[17], including communication problems in courtrooms in defiance of translation by interpreters[18], as well as wrong dagnosis.[19]

Founder and owner of Eppink Adviesgroep Hilversum 1983-1998[edit | hide | edit source]

Dr. Eppink was owner of Psychologisch Buro (1985-1996), head of Omroepadvies (broadcasting organizations, Hilversum, 1990-1996), founder Dr. Eppink Adviesgroep (Hilversum, 1991-1996), and Management Consultant (1996-1998).
Dr. Eppink Adviesgroep developed programs on job hunting and outplacement, and published 'Focused Applying', a fill-in workbook for personal development.[20]
Eppink initiated various projects for Companies and organizations, including broadcast, Amsterdam Police, Police School of Amsterdam[21], Vrije Universiteit & IT-Companies[22], en NCGV (Dutch Center for Mental Health)[23], hive-off of departments of the Maastricht Municipality, consultancy to broadcasters and media.

Non-Commercial Activities[edit | hide | edit source]

Eppink wrote on his theory and application of the concepts of the Triangular Model and Hidden Goals.[24] Actual research: systematized practical experiences in team building and organization development.[25] For this purpose, he set up Montaigne House in La Viñuela (Málaga), Spain, a Foundation relying on volunteers.

Some Other Publications[edit | hide | edit source]

- Cultuurverschillen en communicatie. Alphen a/d Rijn: Samsom, 1981-86.
- Kind-zijn in twee culturen: jonge Marokkaanse en Turkse kinderen in Nederland. Deventer: Van Loghum Slaterus, 1981-1992.
-Het masker van de pijn. Coutinho, 1990. [The Mask of Pain].[26]
-- De geschiedenis van het 'ik': Europa als bakermat, Amerika als broeikas?. 2013. (The History of the I - Europe as Cradle, America as Hothouse?).[27]
-- Crisis, Power, Sustainability & Ethics - It's All Machiavelli and Hidden Goals - A Manager's Guide. 2014.

Works in Collaboration[edit | hide | edit source]

-- Rapport Turkse en Marokkaanse jongeren in Nederland : een exploratief onderzoek naar de belevingswereld van deze jongeren en hun ouders: geanalyseerd in termen van rolgedrag en kultuurverschillen. A. Eppink, M. Hartman-Eeken, and Cora Vreede-de Stuers. Averroes Stichting. Publisher: Den Haag: Staatsuitgeverij, 1979. Series: Averroés Stichting Publication.

-- Cultuurcontact en cultuurconflict: acculturatie in het Romeinse rijk. Muiderberg: D. Coutinho, 1988.

-- Cultuurconflict en cultuurcontact. Muiden: Coutinho, 1991. A. Eppink (ed.), J.M.M. van Amersfoort, J.M. Bartelink[28], A.B. Breebaart, L. de Blois, R. van den Broek, P.W. de Neeve, J.R.T.M. Peters, G.K.A.D. Smelink, H.A. Sutherland, and H.C. Teitler.

-- Begegnen--Verstehen--Handeln: Handbuch für Interkulturelles Kommunikationstraining. Author: Frankfurt am Main (Germany), Amt für Multikulturelle Angelegenheiten. Thomas Frey, Dieter Haller, Angelika Weber, Dr. Andreas Eppink (Hilversum), Susanne Pellinger (Heidelberg), Dr. Lutz Hoffmann (Bielefeld), Jürgen Rietschek (Heidelberg-Wieblingen), Jutta Dehoff-Zuch und Pastor Andreas Zuch (Oldenburg), Dr. Christhild Becker-Hock (Florstadt). Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Amt für Multikulturelle Angelegenheiten - 1993.

-- [& Ineke Mouthaan], Migrants and Their Mental Health: a Survey of the international Literature and an Assessment of the Situation in the Netherlands. Utrecht: NcVg, 1992. (NcVg-reeks; 92-8). Geneva: World Health Organisation, 1992.

- [& I. Bok en T. Taris], Sociaal vaardiger in een tweede cultuur. In: Sociale vaardigheidstrainingen voor kinderen. Lisse: Swets en Zeitlinger, 1995.

- Toepasbaarheid van psychologische tests bij allochtonen. Utrecht: LBR, 1990. Contributers: W. Hofstee, W. Campbell, A. Eppink, A. Evers, R.C. Joe, J. van de Koppel, H. Zweers,, C. Choenni, & T. van der Zwan.

- M. Perla & A. Eppink, Les pionniers niés de la science moderne: 1001 savants arabes au berceau des sciences modernes; une histoire des contacts de cultures. 2012.

References[edit | hide | edit source]

  1. A. Eppink, Familierelaties, sexualiteit en vriendschap in Noord-Afrika [Family Relationships, Sexuality and Friendship in North Africa]. Dissertation, Social Sciences, University of Amsterdam, 1977.
  2. A1B 14th General census: annex housing census, 28 February 1971 Non-Dutch nationalities.
  3. A. Eppink & T. Maaskant, Konstruktie van een vragenlijst voor niet-Europese Buitenlandse Werknemers. Een Exploratief Onderzoek naar met Verblijfsduur samenhangende Variabelen. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Psychologisch Laboratorium 1972, 118 pp. [Construction of a questionnaire for non-European foreign workers. An Explorative Study on Variables related to Duration of Stay.] Mentioned in: Ingeborg Willke. International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft / Revue Internationale de l'Education, Vol. 21, No. 3, Education for Children of Migrant Workers / Erziehung für Gastarbeiterkinder / Education pour les Enfants des Travailleurs Migrants (1975), pp. 383-400 Published by Springer.
  4. NRC Handelsblad 23-04-1988. Interview: Trouw 23-04-1988. "Hilversumse psycholoog dr. A. Eppink..."
    General Discussion, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    FAM. Kortmann, Meetinstrumenten in de transculturele psychiatrie. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie, jrg. 47(2005)38, pp. 787-793.
    [ Mikado], kenniscentrum voor interculturele geestelijke gezondheidszorg. 15 mei 2007.
    M. Komter, De verdeling van kennis in de rechtszaal [Knowledge Distribution in the Courtroom]. In: Recht der Werkelijkheid, 1991, nr. 2, pp. 3-19.
    Police interrogation. In: Vrije Stem, onafhankelijk weekblad voor Suriname, 28-02-1979.
  5. De Telegraaf 18-12-1975 []: "Buitenlandse werknemer een van Europa's pijnlijkste problemen".
  6. Dagblad Het Parool 16-09-1982 []. Averroés Stichting first decennium.
  7. In: Folia Civitatis, 11 Sept. 1977.
  8. [Averroés Foundation. Averroés Foundation eventually merged partly into Verweij-Jonker Institute and partly into NIZW (Dutch Institute for Care and Welfare).
  9. Han Entzinger
  10. published in January-April 1979.
  11. Socio-psychological problems of migrant children and cultural conflicts. In: International Migration (Geneva) 17(1979)1-2. Pp. 87-119. Explanatory model for intercultural communication based on the work of Basil Bernstein and Mary Douglas.
  12. Cultuurverschillen en Communicatie. Alphen a/d Rijn: Samsom, 1981-1986.
  13. In: Communicatie en cultuur. (2010).
  14. De Telegraaf 29-12-1990 [], (interview) "Dr. A. Eppink from Hilversum... for fourteen years forensic expert Amsterdam District Court."
  15. Cross-culturele gedragsbeoordeling in Nederlands Juristenblad 58(1983). Comment on "F. Koenraadt en E. van Vloten, Forensisch psychiatrische rapportage en cultuurconflict: een randprobleem in een randgebied? In: NJB 57(1982)35, pp. 953-964. (Cross-Cultural Behavioral Assessment. A comment on "F. Koenraadt and E. van Vloten, Forensic Psychiatric Reporting and Cultural Conflict: A Marginal Issue in a Peripheral Area?]
    A. Eppink, Rapportage Over Buitenlandse Justitiabelen (Ethnic Minorities and Criminal Proceedings). In F. Koenraadt and S.J. Steenstra (eds.), Forensische Psychologie. Rapportage en Behandeling in Het Straf(proces)recht (Arnhem: Gouda Quint, 1994), pp. 109-122.
    Mieke Komen, Difficulties of cultural diversity: An exploratory study into forensic psychiatric reporting on serious juvenile offenders in the Netherlands. In: Crime, Law Social Change (2006), pp. 45-55. Volume 45, Issue 1, February, pp. 55-69 (doi:10.1007/s10611-006-9023-7).
    Rapportage over buitenlandse justitiabelen. In: Forensische psychologie: rapportage en behandeling in het straf(proces)recht. Arnhem: Gouda Quint, 1994, pp. 109-122. Comment by F. Koenraadt en S.J. Steenstra.
  16. Verburgerlijking: een hypothese over verschillen in criminaliteit van Turkse en Marokkaanse migranten in Nederland [Verkorte versie]. In: Cultuur en Delict. Den Haag: Vuga, 1992. Pp. 121-136. Edited by J. Fiselier en F. Strijdbosch.
  17. Trouw 31-08-1990 (
  18. De Telegraaf 29-12-1990 (
  19. Weekblad Elsevier, (2009), nr. 3.
    Women's right.
    Frank Bovenkerk cited Eppink in Het vraagstuk van de criminaliteit der Marokkaanse jongens (The issue of the crime of Moroccan boys). In: De Gids. jrg. 154(1991), p. 977.
    Raad voor strafrechtstoepassing and jeugdbescherming (Council for criminal justice application and youth protection).
  20. Psychologie magazine (Weekbladpers Tijdschriften), September 1996. With additional attachment about applying. The workbook was a gift for new subscribers to this magazine.
  21. Newspaper Het vrije volk : 04-07-1986 [Delpher].
  22. P.F. van Leest & N. Bleichrodt, Promotie Informatica Omscholing in Nederland. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1989.
  23. Andreas Eppink [& Ineke Mouthaan], Evaluatie van de voorbeeldprojecten psychosociale hulpverlening in de eerste lijn. Utrecht: NcGv, 1990.
  24. Articles reprinted on
  25. Dennis Heijn, The Fearless Monkey. In: IESE Insight, Issue 35 june 2017.
  26. G.H. Mellema en C. Geluk Altijd-pijn. 14 mei 2007.
  27. Review in English in: Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, jrg. 77(2015), pp. 855-890.
  28. École de Nimègue.